Immersing servers and information technology (IT) equipment in a dielectric fluid enables substantial energy savings and accommodates growing load densities. The existing proprietary immersion cooling solutions and numerous case studies have established the effectiveness and energy savings for new construction or a retrofit from the device to the facility level.

Immersion cooling of data center equipment promises to improve reliability and overall equipment life, with lower service and repair costs. Immersion cooling greatly reduces failures such as solder joint failures, oxidation and corrosion of electrical contacts, electrostatic discharge, and ambient particulate. It allows for much more consistent and controlled operating temperature and humidity. Bill of materials (BOM) component count and cost reductions are intrinsic to immersion too, as fans, conventional heatsinks, and operating environment controls such as humidity sensors are eliminated.  These reliability advances include a reduction in corrosion and electrochemical migration, lessening of environmental contamination like dust, debris, and particulates, reduced thermal shock, and mitigation of tin and zinc whiskers.  Furthermore, the improved thermal management of components due to the increased heat capacity of fluids, can provide a significant increase in compute performance.

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Single Phase Immersion Cooling

 

Open bath Immersion Cooling is a Data Center cooling technique that implies fully submerging servers in dielectric coolant fluid. It’s called open bath because servers are placed side-by-side in large tanks that assimilate bathtubs. These baths operate at atmospheric pressure and allow the coolant fluid to be pumped through the hardware components or servers submerged in it. We like to use the term “open bath” when talking about single-phase Immersion Cooling and “semi-open or closed” baths when talking about two-phase Immersion Cooling.

In single-phase open bath Immersion Cooling the dielectric liquid coolant always stays in liquid form (in contrast to the two-phase coolants that change state from liquid to gas and back). The coolant liquid is always in contact with the hardware installed in the bath and is pumped through the hardware towards the heat exchanging system that allows for the extraction of heat collected by the coolant. These heat exchanging systems usually convey with a water cooled circuit.

Different types of liquid cooling

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Direct to Chip

Cold Plate cooling

  • Can lead to vendor lock-in

  • Requires both Air and Water cooling

  • High Complexity

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Two phase

Immersion cooling

  • Expensive (~$90/kg)

  • Not Environmentally Friendly

  • Medium Complexity

Single phase

immersion cooling

  • Simple and safe to handle

  • Lower TCO

  • Low Complexity

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